### Radiometric Dating

## Radiometric Dating

is based on the beta decay of rubidium-87 to strontium-87, with a half-life of 50 billion years. the procedures used to isolate and analyze the parent and daughter nuclides must be precise and accurate. basic equation of radiometric dating requires that neither the parent nuclide nor the daughter product can enter or leave the material after its formation. finally, correlation between different isotopic dating methods may be required to confirm the age of a sample. in many cases, the daughter nuclide itself is radioactive, resulting in a decay chain, eventually ending with the formation of a stable (nonradioactive) daughter nuclide; each step in such a chain is characterized by a distinct half-life.

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## A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Radiometric dating

with stratigraphic principles, radiometric dating methods are used in geochronology to establish the geologic time scale.-argon dating:The element potassium (symbol k) has three nuclides, k39, k40, and k41. generally a shorter half-life leads to a higher time resolution at the expense of timescale. relatively short-range dating technique is based on the decay of uranium-234 into thorium-230, a substance with a half-life of about 80,000 years. for dates up to a few million years micas, tektites (glass fragments from volcanic eruptions), and meteorites are best used.

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#### Radioactivity | Boundless Chemistry

the mass spectrometer was invented in the 1940s and began to be used in radiometric dating in the 1950s. the age that can be calculated by radiometric dating is thus the time at which the rock or mineral cooled to closure temperature. a related method is ionium–thorium dating, which measures the ratio of ionium (thorium-230) to thorium-232 in ocean sediment. amounts of otherwise rare 36cl (half-life ~300ky) were produced by irradiation of seawater during atmospheric detonations of nuclear weapons between 1952 and 1958.Λ is the decay constant of the parent isotope, equal to the inverse of the radioactive half-life of the parent isotope[16] times the natural logarithm of 2.

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#### Radiometric Dating

.Half lives for each plotted point are marked on the line and identified. stimulating these mineral grains using either light (optically stimulated luminescence or infrared stimulated luminescence dating) or heat (thermoluminescence dating) causes a luminescence signal to be emitted as the stored unstable electron energy is released, the intensity of which varies depending on the amount of radiation absorbed during burial and specific properties of the mineral. in uranium–lead dating, the concordia diagram is used which also decreases the problem of nuclide loss. (properly expressed as the half-life = h) is:N = h[log(f)/log(1/2)]. for rocks dating back to the beginning of the solar system, this requires extremely long-lived parent isotopes, making measurement of such rocks' exact ages imprecise.