Sexual Hookup Culture: A Review
Tinder and Hookup-Culture Promotion | Vanity Fair
“hookups”hookups may include any sexual behavior in a seemingly uncommitted context. research has considered the interactions of sex and individual differences in predicting hookup behavior. which of these factors prove to be most important depends on culture, personality, gender, and social context. this is consistent with the view of emerging adulthood (typical college age) as a period of developmental transition (arnett, 2000), exploring and internalizing sexuality and romantic intimacy, now including hookups (stinson, 2010). alcoholic drinks, during their most recent hookup (lewis et al. despite various health risks, in a qualitative study of 71 college students (39 women and 32 men), nearly half of participants were unconcerned with contracting a sexually transmitted infection from penetrative intercourse during a hookup, and a majority were unconcerned about diseases in hookups that included fellatio or cunnilingus (downing-matibag & geisinger, 2009). that's the argument of a provocative new book, "the end of sex: how hookup culture is leaving a generation unhappy, sexually unfulfilled, and confused about intimacy.’s study (2003), reiber and garcia (2010) found that 78% of individuals overestimated others’ comfort with many different sexual behaviors, with men particularly overestimating women’s actual comfort with a variety of sexual behaviors in hookups. "what has really changed is that among youth we see a decline in dating culture and so most college students have had more hookups than first dates," says justin garcia, a sex researcher at the kinsey institute in indiana. many popular representations suggest uncommitted sex, or hookups, can be both biophysically and emotionally enjoyable and occur without “strings. regreta number of studies have included measures of regret with respect to hookups, and these studies have documented the negative feelings men and women may feel after hookups."but true hookup culture isn't just about sex itself, says freitas. frameworks for hookup researchan interdisciplinary biopsychosocial model can synthesize traditionally disconnected theoretical perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of hookup culture.
Understanding Hookup Culture - Study Guide
nearly all hookups involve kissing; 98% of undergraduate respondents in one study reported kissing within a hookup (fielder & carey, 2010a). these are not findings that seem to be prevalent among lesbians and women who have sex with women or among heterosexual hookups. kernerof the 557 male and female students who responded to a question asking how they felt the morning after a hookup, 41% of those expressed sadness, regret and ambivalence." additionally, kristen mark, a sex and relationships researcher at the university of kentucky, has found that students tend to view casual hookups as a positive alternative to romantic relationships. research has found minimal gender differences in terms of hookup behaviors.'s a decline in dating culture and a rise in hookup culture among college students, according to a new book." additionally, kristen mark, a sex and relationships researcher at the university of kentucky, has found that students tend to view casual hookups as a positive alternative to romantic relationships. in one sample of undergraduate college students, both men and women had nearly double the number of hookups compared to first dates (bradshaw, kahn, & saville, 2010). culture and sexual riskthe negative consequences of hookups can include emotional and psychological injury, sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and/or unintended pregnancy. "when we discuss the topic of casual sex and the hookup culture, they talk about it in the context of being too busy now to maintain a relationship or not wanting to make a relationship a priority at this stage in their life," she says. fact, old-fashioned sexual double standards are a big feature of hookup culture. just as multiple motivations can be in conflict, and multiple discourse messages can be in conflict, individuals’ affective reactions during and after a hookup can be in conflict. as another example, a qualitative study of men’s hookup scripts also displayed inconsistency in casualness (epstein, calzo, smiler, & ward, 2009).
Sexual hook-up culture
Hookup Culture on College Campuses: Centering College Women
highlightsa new book says college students are hooking up more oftenthe author says the experience leaves them feeling empty, sad and regretfuldo students view hookups as an alternative to a relationship?” these findings raise several concerns about the occurrence of hookups and the psychological impact such behaviors have on the individuals involved.% of participants portrayed their most recent hookup experience as one they wanted to have, while 7. because same-sex relationships are naturally removed from the reproductive motive, it may be possible that part of the larger hookup culture is borrowed from sexual subcultures involving greater emphasis on the positive erotic. yet romance may be getting short shrift these days, replaced instead with quick "hookups" devoid of any real emotion. emily nagoski, wellness education director at smith college, believes a holistic approach is necessary: "to create a culture that fosters satisfying relationships and sex, we must teach students how to live inside their bodies with confidence and joy," she explains. that’s partly because (heterosexual) hookup sex is more likely to center on male pleasure. further, in a qualitative study that asked 187 participants to report their feelings after a typical hookup, 35% reported feeling regretful or disappointed, 27% good or happy, 20% satisfied, 11% confused, 9% proud, 7% excited or nervous, 5% uncomfortable, and 2% desirable or wanted (paul & hayes, 2002). the term hookup focuses on the uncommitted nature of a sexual encounter rather than focus on what behaviors “count. this paints a picture very different from popular representations of alcohol and substance use in hookups, which are often handled with a detached air of humor. "when we discuss the topic of casual sex and the hookup culture, they talk about it in the context of being too busy now to maintain a relationship or not wanting to make a relationship a priority at this stage in their life," she says. in first-time hookups, 55% included only men receiving oral sex, 19% only women receiving oral sex, and 27% both mutually receiving; in last relationship sexual activity, 32% included only men receiving oral sex, 16% included only women receiving oral sex, and 52% included both mutually receiving..nitsujauthor information ► copyright and license information ►copyright notice and disclaimersee other articles in pmc that cite the published article.
Campus Hookup Culture: Myth vs. Reality | JSTOR Daily
Hook-up Culture – Ingeborg Kjaerstad
"our data has shown that one of the greatest contributors to hookup behavior is a desire for sexual pleasure. in one investigation of the concomitant motivations for hookups, garcia and reiber (2008) found that while 89% of young men and women reported that physical gratification was important, 54% reported emotional gratification and 51% reported a desire to initiate a romantic relationship; there were no sex differences in the responses." why you should talk about sex before marriagein other words, today's college culture has turned hooking up into a sport that all the "cool" kids are playing -- or at least talking about -- even if they secretly hate it. "to equate a hookup with casual sex is to miss the really important part of the conversation, which is that students feel so much pressure to show they are a part of things that they'll count almost anything as a hookup.’ and ‘so drunk, i can’t believe i…’ as well as space to rate your hookups and hangovers—make this guided journal the perfect accessory for the morning after. an example of this disconnect is presented by backstrom, armstrong, and puentes (2012), whose study examined the responses of 43 college women who described their difficulties in their negotiations of cunnilingus, such as desiring it in a hookup or not desiring it in a relationship. because cunnilingus often facilitates women’s orgasm, participants were asked about oral sex rates and orgasm in their most recent hookup and most recent relationship sexual event. alcohol use has also been associated with type of hookup: greatest alcohol use was associated with penetrative sexual hookups, less alcohol use with nonpenetrative hookups, and least amount of alcohol use among those who did not hookup (owen, fincham, & moore, 2011). in another survey of 500 students who all had experiences with hookups, 65% of women and 45% of men reported that they hoped their hookup encounter would become a committed relationship, with 51% of women and 42% of men reporting that they tried to discuss the possibility of starting a relationship with their hookup partner (owen & fincham, 2011). popular pro-hookup same-sex representations have also emerged in television series like queer as folk and the l-word. hookups are most comprehensively understood in an interdisciplinary framework that combines multiple levels of analyses..internationalconfirmfacebooktwitterinstagramyoung adults and a hookup cultureby ian kerner, special to cnnupdated 7:08 am et, thu may 16, 2013 chat with us in facebook messenger.“hookups,” or uncommitted sexual encounters, are becoming progressively more engrained in popular culture, reflecting both evolved sexual predilections and changing social and sexual scripts.
Communication in the Modern Hookup Culture: A Literature Review
Hookup culture: for the white and wealthy.
culture and psychological well-beingthe discrepancy between behaviors and desires, particularly with respect to social–sexual relationships, has dramatic implications for physical and mental health. out-of-control hookup culture on american college campuses has become a predictable subject for magazine articles, op-ed pages and blogs over the past decade or more. it is likely that a substantial portion of emerging adults today are compelled to publicly engage in hookups while desiring both immediate sexual gratification and more stable romantic attachments. in first time hookups, 31% of men and 10% of women reached orgasm; in last relationship sexual activity, 85% of men and 68% of women reached orgasm. "to equate a hookup with casual sex is to miss the really important part of the conversation, which is that students feel so much pressure to show they are a part of things that they'll count almost anything as a hookup. in addition to sharing common social venues with heterosexuals, gay men and other men who have sex with men have an expanded array of venues in which hookups may occur. terms of applying this logic to human sexual behavior and in particular sexual hookups, uncommitted sex has most often been interpreted in evolutionary terms as a fitness-enhancing short-term mating strategy (buss, 1998; buss & schmitt, 1993). note that this study asked participants about typical hookups, and although this was informative for general patterns, it does not capture specific factors influencing specific individual scenarios. individual history of hookup behavior has been associated with a variety of mental health factors. similarly, in a study of 832 college students, 26% of women and 50% of men reported a positive emotional reaction following a hookup, and 49% of women and 26% of men reported a negative reaction (the remainders for each sex had a mix of both positive and negative reactions; owen et al., 2007; phillips, 2000; ward, 1995) have favored culture and subculture environment elements such as popular media (i. in the current review, we examine and explore these patterns in sexual hookups. we argue that contemporary hookup culture is best understood as the convergence of evolutionary and social forces during the developmental period of emerging adulthood.
Is Hooking Up Bad For Young Women? - Contexts
hookups may be characterized as a form of “casual sex” or “uncommitted sexual encounter. in a sample of 178 college students, participants noted that a majority of their unwanted sex occurred in the context of hookups: 77. young men higher in mating intelligence were more likely than others to have hooked up with strangers, acquaintances, and friends; while young women higher in mating intelligence were only more likely than others to have had more hookup experiences with acquaintances (o’brien, geher, gallup, garcia, & kaufman, 2009). in the next two sections, we will introduce both evolutionary and social script views of uncommitted sex, to simultaneously consider the influence of each on hookup culture.: casual sex, hookup, hooking up, human sexuality, sexual behavior, mating strategies, sexual scriptsthere’s a stranger in my bedthere’s a pounding in my headglitter all over the roompink flamingos in the pooli smell like a minibardj’s passed out in the yardbarbies on the barbequeis this a hickey or a bruise—last friday night (t. they found that relationships and casual flings weren’t mutually exclusive: 75 percent of the women hooked up at least once—though not all hookups involved sex—and 72 percent had at least one relationship that lasted six months or longer. but the kind of in-depth research that hamilton and armstrong have done into women’s feelings about hookups doesn’t seem to have been done for college men." why you should talk about sex before marriagein other words, today's college culture has turned hooking up into a sport that all the "cool" kids are playing -- or at least talking about -- even if they secretly hate it. yet romance may be getting short shrift these days, replaced instead with quick "hookups" devoid of any real emotion. "our data has shown that one of the greatest contributors to hookup behavior is a desire for sexual pleasure. armstrong of the university of michigan, laura hamilton of the university of california, merced, and paula england of new york university agree that modern campus culture isn’t a big departure from the recent past. over the past 60 years, the prioritization of traditional forms of courting and pursuing romantic relationships has shifted to more casual “hookups” (bogle, 2007, 2008). in a sample of 394 young adults, the strongest predictor of hookup behavior was having previously hooked up—those who engaged in penetrative sex hookups were approximately 600% more likely than others to repeat this over the course of a university semester (owen et al.
Hook Up Culture: Changing the Structure of Future Relationships?
Changing the 'hook-up culture' conversation on college campuses
popular culture is simultaneously representing aspects of actual contemporary sexual behavior and providing sexual scripts for emerging adults. the urge to participate in hookup culture might be fleeting. such settings may help facilitate a preexisting desire for hookups (i. alcohol may also serve as an excuse, purposely consumed as a strategy to protect the self from having to justify hookup behavior later (paul, 2006). among heterosexual emerging adults of both sexes, hookups have become culturally normative. descriptions of hookups reveal relative gender differences in terms of feelings afterward, with women displaying more negative reactions than men (paul & hayes, 2002). that's the argument of a provocative new book, "the end of sex: how hookup culture is leaving a generation unhappy, sexually unfulfilled, and confused about intimacy. further, in a study based on 71 interviews with college students, nearly 80% indicated that alcohol was involved in initiating their most recent hookup, with 64% attributing the progression and extent of the hookup to alcohol (downing-matibag & geisinger, 2009). alcohol and drugs are likely a strong factor, it is still largely unclear what role individual differences play in shaping decisions to engage in hookups. or, that high degrees of closeness to peer social networks and peer communication about hookups was associated with more sexual hookups (holman & sillars, 2012) may be considered as a facultative response to adaptively react to peer expectations and local norms. health-based hookup research like this may lead to programs for correcting misperceptions of sexual risk and sexual norms to ultimately restore individual locus of control over sexual behavior, reproductive rights, and healthy personal decision-making..internationalconfirmfacebooktwitterinstagramyoung adults and a hookup cultureby ian kerner, special to cnnupdated 7:08 am et, thu may 16, 2013 chat with us in facebook messenger. 3– 4)some empirical studies of hookup behavior have also advocated multifactorial approaches (eshbaugh & gute, 2008; garcia & reiber, 2008).
Young adults and a hookup culture - CNN
Lisa Wade - Google Scholar Citations
% indicated that their most recent hookup was an experience they did not want to have or to which they were unable to give consent. paik (2010a) found that individuals in relationships that start as hookups or fwbs report lower average relationship satisfaction. yet, this larger casual sex literature has remained largely disjointed from investigations of “hookups.” hookups are different from infidelity situations (extrapair copulations), in which an individual engages in sex with an extrarelational partner, but is still functionally committed to the relationship partner..) (perry, gottwald, martin, & mckee, 2011)popular media representations of sexuality demonstrate the pervasiveness of a sexual hookup culture among emerging adults. is still unclear the degree to which hookups may result in positive reactions, and whether young men and young women are sexually satisfied in these encounters. in this study, men reported receiving oral sex both in hookups and in relationships much more than women..crime + justiceenergy + environmentextreme weatherspace + scienceworldafricaamericasasiaeuropemiddle east45congresssecuritythe ninetrumpmericastatemarketstechmediapersonal financeluxuryopinionpolitical op-edssocial commentaryireporthealthdiet + fitnessliving wellparenting + familystarsscreenbingeculturemediabusinessculturegadgetsfuturestartupsartsdesignfashionarchitectureluxuryautosvideodestinationsfood & drinkplaystayvideospro footballcollege footballbasketballbaseballsoccerolympicslivingfoodrelationshipsreligionvideolive tv •digital studioscnn filmshlntv scheduletv shows a-zcnnvrhow to watch vrarchivesmore…photoslongforminvestigationscnn profilescnn leadershipcnn newsletterswork for cnnu. that is, it is unclear how one might rate a “typical” hookup if, for instance, one instance involved sexual coercion and regret while other hookup experiences before and/or after such an event were consenting and more enjoyable. at the same time, those participants who reported less depressive symptoms and fewer feelings of loneliness who engaged in penetrative sex hookups subsequently reported an increase in both depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness (owen et al. is important to point out that many sociocultural theorists disagree with the idea that culture offers only a proximate level explanation for human sexual behavior. yet, this finding also conflicts with a strict sexual strategies model because more than half of women were glad they engaged in a hookup (and they were not in the context of commandeering extrapartner genes for offspring). in seeming contrast to the sex-specific mating strategies, contemporary hookup behavior involves a high degree of female sexual assertiveness for sexual desire and pleasure.
How to meet a man without online dating
A lot of women don't enjoy hookup culture—so why do we force
moreover, in a study of 140 (109 female, 31 male) first-semester undergraduates, women, but not men, who had engaged in penetrative intercourse during a hookup showed higher rates of mental distress (fielder & carey, 2010b). the gender differences observed are modest, and point to the convergence of gender roles in hookup culture; even though there are some gender differences, it should not be ignored that the curves overlap significantly. the problem, contends freitas, is a culture that overwhelmingly pressures young men and women to have meaningless hookups -- even though they might not enjoy it. kernerof the 557 male and female students who responded to a question asking how they felt the morning after a hookup, 41% of those expressed sadness, regret and ambivalence. presumably, these same conflicting discourse messages can make it difficult for individuals to psychologically navigate hookups, including sexual decision-making. "many men and women do express regret over some of their past hookups. the emergence of sexual hookup culture provides a case of human social behavior through which to explore the relationship and possible interaction between evolved mating psychology and cultural context. "students define the sexual aspect of the hookup as 'anything from kissing to sex'," she explains. contexts piece notes that 48 percent of women who’ve been involved in a hookup say they’re interested in a relationship, compared with 36 percent of men. for instance, the interactive book hookups & hangovers: a journal (chronicle books, 2011) is playfully described by the publisher: “here to help piece together all the hilarious and humiliating details of last night’s party. several popular books on hookups have hit the shelves, with unscientific yet racy claims. compounding disease risks, individuals involved in hookups are more likely to have concurrent sexual partners (paik, 2010b). we suggest that researchers must consider both evolutionary mechanisms and social processes, and be considerate of the contemporary popular cultural climate in which hookups occur, in order to provide a comprehensive and synergistic biopsychosocial view of “casual sex” among emerging adults today.