The Sociology of 'Hooking Up'

their 2005 book soul searching, christian smith and melinda denton argue that current catholic college students no longer arrive on campus with the kind of religious socialization that used to take place within catholic elementary and high schools.” as a result, students who aren’t the biggest fans of the hook-up culture are made to feel like they should like it, and therefore continue to participate. the study by burdette, ellison, hill and glenn (2007) points to a more serious problem on catholic campuses. claims about the hookup culture among college students are greatly exaggerated, it seems. this student body, coupled with the institutional factors, produces hardly any hookup culture at all.  the first section is the most comprehensive, because it defines the hook-up culture and identifies the extent of the problem of casual sexual behavior on college campuses—both catholic and non-catholic. is clear that on many catholic campuses, residence life leaders appear to have little idea about catholic teachings on sexuality. is the incidence of stds, pregnancy and abortion on catholic campuses, and how does it compare to other colleges? students think of their liaisons with fellow students has clearly changed, and so has the college culture, apparently.  there are several studies which describe the phenomenon known as “friends with benefits” on college campuses—including catholic college campuses—or relationships that fit neither the traditional definition of a friendship nor a romantic relationship.  some researchers suggest that a hook-up culture can emerge when females outnumber males on campus (rhoads, webber and vanvleet, 2010).  historically, colleges and universities—especially catholic colleges and universities—believed that they needed to play an active role in helping their students find happiness and meaningful relationships with those of the opposite sex during their years on campus.  she found that for students at evangelical colleges, unlike students at catholic colleges, religion is the center of everything, from campus life to student identity.

Hookup culture - Wikipedia

small groups of students, of course, cannot change the culture alone. what i discovered is that catholic identity does affect hookup culture—but not in a simple or straightforward way.  most importantly, hook-ups carry no anticipation of a future relationship (bogle, 2008; england, shafer, and fogarty, 2007). mcnellis directly addressed the problems inherent in the hook-up culture: “when men get involved in the hook-up culture, they regress. they simply mean that, when we think of catholic identity, we should not think of it as a platonic ideal, but as an incarnate reality implicated in the complexities of campus life.”  he believes that the resurgence of the dating culture can cure the hook-up culture. catholic campuses not only have a significant number of catholic students, but these students are pretty devout. my research indicated that catholic campuses have lower rates of hooking up—but how much lower depends upon the particular type of catholic identity.: despite the new 'hookup culture,' college students aren't having more sex than they used to san jose mercury news. very catholic campuses, less than 30 percent of students hook up. mcnellis points out that students need to “shed their ties with the hook-up culture in order to start developing the values that are necessary to being a faithful spouse or responsible father. this may be true for evangelical colleges, this still does not explain why female catholic college students enrolled on catholic campuses are more likely to hook up—even more likely than those on secular campuses. conclude by looking closely at the counter-culture that is emerging on many catholic and secular campuses as students are taking the lead in promoting chastity and fidelity.

Hooking Up: Sex, Dating, and Relationships on Campus by

that means that it’s not clear whether what bogle has labeled as hookup culture is really different from what the “one-night stand” or “making out” seen on past campuses as something that may or may not lead to further intimacy. indicates that students tend to overestimate the hook-up culture on their campuses. student affairs officers on catholic campuses say the most important issues they face are issues of sexual behavior and identity (bickel, 2001).  “sexual assault on campus: a multilevel, integrative approach to party rape,” social problems (november 2006), 53 (4): 483-499., it appears that many student life administrators have moved from a pro-active role in helping to facilitate healthy pair bonding to a reactive role in helping to pick up the pieces and repairing the very real damages when a degraded campus culture of casual sex emerges.  while most studies of the hook-up culture on campus do not differentiate by religious affiliation, we provide a comprehensive look at the ones that investigate the differences in sexual behavior by students attending a catholic college and those who do not.  but the literature indicates that on some campuses the student life administrators, many of whom came of age in the freewheeling 1970s, lag behind the more conservative students in creating such a culture.  the commission produced a report titled wasting the best and the brightest: substance abuse at america’s colleges and universities, which reveals, among other things, a significant public health crisis on campuses throughout the country. instead of preventing hookups, as on very catholic campuses, the catholic culture on mostly catholic campuses changes hooking up so that it becomes (or so the students hope) a way into a relationship. is clear that the culture on evangelical campuses is dramatically different from that on catholic campuses. that might be the case, if these factors’ effects on hookup culture were likewise ones of gradation.  as a consequence, the opportunities for sexual activity in campus housing have clearly increased. identity affects hookup culture, but it does so in diverse ways.

Hooking Up: Sex, Dating, and Relationships on Campus

there is no simple, inverse relationship between catholic culture and hookup culture. when we do, we will see the impact catholic identity already has on hookup culture—and the potential it has to do more. a qualitative exploration of the phenomenology of college students’ hookups,” journal of social and personal relationships (2002), 19: 639-661.  if all students accept hooking up as a way of campus life, and believe that everyone is doing it, then using the word shame cannot be understood.  the task force—composed of college presidents, researchers and students—spent three years extensively analyzing the literature on the use of alcohol on college campuses.  it is assumed that women are often victims of the hook-up culture.  some of the richest data is derived from qualitative studies like those done by kathleen bogle and donna freitas.  for these students, college became a lonely time of weekends spent watching others involved in the social scene on campus. argues that what is now called hookup culture began in the 1970s, after birth control became widely available and the age of marriage began rising. ninety-one percent of students say their campus is dominated by a hook-up culture. her book, hooking up: sex, dating and relationships on campus, kathleen bogle points out that the contemporary college campus (both catholic and secular) is conducive to hooking up: there is a relatively homogeneous population living in close proximity to each other with no strictly enforced rules monitoring their behavior.  research indicates that students in single-sex residences are significantly less likely to engage in binge drinking and the hookup culture than students living in co-ed student residences” (kaczor, 2011). less than half of the students on these campuses—45 percent—hook up.

How Does Catholic Identity Affect Hookup Culture? | Jason King

of the research on hooking up on college campuses focuses on female students.  but anecdotal evidence exists that males also suffer consequences from the student culture on many campuses.  but the reality is that college campuses—including catholic college campuses—have been moving toward a hook-up culture for more than thirty years.  the task force encourages parents to inquire about campus alcohol policies when their high school student is trying to choose the right college. addition to increased support for abortion, the georgetown study revealed that 39 percent of catholic students enrolled on catholic campuses claim that they have moved further away from their church’s definition of marriage as a union of one woman and one man.  he believes that many students want the dating culture to come back, pointing to the “yearly student scramble to obtain tickets to the formal middlemarch dance” as evidence of student desire for an alternative to the current hook-up culture. is clear that there remain gender differences in perceptions of those who are engaged in the hook-up culture. important consideration offered by penhollow, young and denny (2005) is that in doing research on the correlates of participating in the hook-up culture, it is possible that just as religiosity has an effect on hooking-up behavior, the converse may be true; it is just as likely that “sexual experiences influence religiosity” (penhollow et al, 2005:81).  they need to help create alternative campus environments that counter the cultural pressure that has “normalized” sexual deviance. suggest specific areas that warrant further research:Causes and consequences of the hook-up culture for males. fact, some researchers believe that instant messaging, facebook and texting play an important role in creating a culture that contributes to casual sexual relationships—what has become known on campus as a “hook-up culture” (bogle, 2008).  bogle points out that men who are very active in the hook-up culture may be called “players,” while women are still viewed as “sluts” if they are perceived as having hooked up too often or with the wrong people. by the hook-up culture on their campuses, there appears to be a student counter-culture emerging.

Myth of Hook-Up Culture on College Campus | Teen Vogue

there is a great need for additional research on whether the co-ed dormitory living contributes to the emergence of a hook-up campus culture, as anecdotal evidence suggests.  rather, the school had to have “an active and apparent religious presence on campus.  there is also anecdotal evidence that students who engage in the culture of casual sex that permeates many catholic campuses find themselves moving away from a commitment to formerly held religious beliefs and practices. if hooking up is defined as a) sexual interaction with b) no expectation of a subsequent relationship, then students on mostly catholic campuses embrace a) but not b). i suspected that there might be some difference in the hookup culture on catholic campuses, especially at those catholic colleges and universities that emphasize their religious identity.  to address this, we have found a growing number of large-scale quantitative studies using representative samples of the hook-up campus culture by sociologists like norval glenn, elizabeth marquardt, amy burdette, christopher ellison, and terrence hill (2009).  she writes that women are far more likely than men to get a bad reputation for how they conduct themselves in the hookup culture.  students need support from the administration and the faculty to counter that culture.  in addition to a decline in church attendance by those who are participating in the hook-up culture, there is anecdotal evidence of a reduction in religious feelings and perceived closeness to god. patrick gather each week in a campus dormitory to discuss philosophy, literature and god.  when a campus develops a “hook-up culture” those who are not part of that culture can easily feel like outsiders.” additional research on the culture that has emerged on catholic campuses, published by donna freitas in sex and the soul, supports many of their conclusions. 2010, 44 notre dame students were arrested for under-age drinking at an off-campus party.

The “Hook-Up” Culture on Catholic Campuses: A Review of the

we have seen that the published literature offers some idea of sexuality on college campuses—and catholic campuses in particular—catholic educators would benefit greatly by allowing and even encouraging more extensive research on student behaviors and the impact of college policies, programs and campus life on sexual attitudes and activity. the hook-up culture, is in fact, more of a subculture.  a recent study done by researchers at georgetown university (2010)  tracking changes in the behavior and attitudes of college students during their years on catholic campuses reveals that 31 percent of catholic students enrolled in catholic colleges and universities report that they have “moved away” from the pro-life teachings of the catholic church during their college years. to new york magazine’s sex on campus survey, a “date” is defined by a whopping 71% of students as “any one-on-one encounter with romantic potential,” which is totally different from the formal “call on a tuesday” attitude of the fifties and the john hughes heyday of the eighties.  this points to the real costs of the hook-up culture on both the institution and the individual. has provided some very good research on substance abuse on college campuses, showing a link to increased sexual activity.  what he sees as “women’s dwindling faith in male behavior” may have been caused by the rise in the divorce rate, the spike in births out of wedlock, and the collapse of the dating culture. kathleen bogle, author of hooking up: sex, dating, and relationships on campus, it's deliberately vague. the college campus, casa discovered that students with no religious affiliation reported higher levels of drinking than those who identified as either catholic or protestant. understand the hook-up culture, freitas collected responses from students at seven colleges and universities—a mix of public, private, evangelical and catholic institutions.  the purpose of our paper is to provide a systematic summary of the social science literature that has been published in the last twenty years on the dating and mating behavior of college students—and assessing what many of these researchers have identified as the very real damage that has been done by the embrace of this culture.  this review of social science literature considers whether the student culture on catholic college and university campuses reinforces these teachings and facilitates the pathway from healthy intimate relationships to marriage. casa asked catholic college presidents if they saw substance abuse as a problem on their campus, 73.

College Student Development and the Hook up Culture

combined, these factors yield three different catholic cultures:On campuses characterized by students as very catholic: eighty percent of students identify as catholic; three classes are required in theology; mass is celebrated every day of the week; few if any residence halls are co-ed; and strict limits are placed on co-ed visitation. have organized these findings into four sections based on specific issues related to sexuality on campus. on very catholic campuses, catholic identity frames students’ thinking and acting on campus. thus, mostly catholic campuses have the most hooking up, very catholic campuses have the least, and somewhat catholic campuses are in the middle.  most respondents complained that the culture on their campuses consisted of either having sex without necessarily progressing to a relationship, or forming a long-standing and intense bond with a man without any anticipation of a future life with that man. the catholic identity of these campuses does not change this disposition, either to encourage or to prevent it. it is difficult to be precise, the studies (see here, here, here, here) on hookup culture in general indicate that around 70 percent of american college students hook up in a given year.  in april 2002, a federal task force of the national advisory council on alcohol abuse and alcoholism issued a report titled a call to action: changing the culture of drinking at u. fourth section of our report investigates the impact of campus polices and especially those who are hired to implement them.  this paper provides a systematic review of the research literature identifying the culture and examining the very real damage that has been done by abandoning the in loco parentis role that colleges and universities used to play in terms of encouraging healthy social relationships.”  while such activity surely does not involve most students, it can have an effect on the entire campus—even beyond those who are attending the parties. have found that anxiety characterized the traditional dating culture for many female and male students. bogle and monto do agree that students tend to think their peers hook up far more frequently than they actually do.

The Truth About the Hookup Culture Among College Students

(more: what everyone’s getting wrong about the ivy league hookup culture). she told them to use the definition of "hook-up" their friends use to mirror the ambiguity on campus, finding that 40% of their most recent hook-ups involved sex.  rather, it was a “purity” culture that encouraged chastity and marriage, a culture of shared morality that exists on the evangelical college campus.  in 2005, new york city’s fordham university ranked first in self-reported campus alcohol violations, with 905 incidents—four times as many as the second-ranked new york university. involvement: about 5 percent of college students are involved with the police or campus security as a result of their drinking.  while we cannot attribute these spiritual costs directly to the hook-up culture, we can suggest that the degraded student culture can be related.  because of this, we devote a substantial portion of our literature review to the data describing the expansion of the use of alcohol by college students through permissive policies of on-campus drinking in the dorms and at social functions, and the role alcohol plays in the hook-up culture—especially on catholic campuses.  (for recent data describing the consequences of the emergence of a culture of alcohol and drugs on campus, see appendix a. faith with benefits: hookup culture on catholic campuses (2017), i surveyed more campuses and more diverse campuses than all the previous studies combined.  “residential life professionals on catholic campuses:  a qualitative study of how they assist students with issues of sexual behavior and identity” (2001).  additional research looking particularly at substance abuse on catholic campuses and among catholic students, and exploring further the link to sexual activity would be helpful to catholic college leaders. this, the second section considers the “costs” that such a culture has incurred in terms of the psychological, spiritual and physical damages associated with such behavior.  and unlike their protestant counterparts, many catholic students arrive on campus never having learned much about church or scriptural teachings on sexual morality.

Hooking Up: Sex, Dating, and Relationships on Campus on JSTOR

research into hookup culture on catholic campuses indicated that catholic campuses were just like secular campuses.  sex and the soul: juggling sexuality, spirituality, romance, and religion on america’s college campuses (new york: oxford university press, 2008). a culture to emerge on catholic campuses that values chastity and respect for church teachings on sexual morality, there must a true collaboration between students and student life administrators..  “alcohol-induced sexual behavior on campus,” journal of american college health (1993), 42 (1): 27-31. campuses characterized by students as somewhat catholic: sixty-eight percent of students identify as catholic; one class is required in theology; mass is celebrated on sundays; all residence halls are co-ed; and minimal limits are place on co-ed visitation.” they came to this conclusion after holding sixteen group interviews and forty-two individual interviews with residents of what became known as a “party dorm” (because of the drinking and sexual behavior) and found that sexual assault was a “predictable outcome” of such a culture. study published by armstrong, hamilton and sweeney (2006), described a “party dorm” as having a “hedonistic culture. the individual physical and psychological costs, there is evidence that the culture that has emerged on many catholic campuses now carries spiritual costs. claims about the hookup culture among college students are greatly exaggerated, it seems.  thus, on catholic campuses, with large numbers of catholic students, the authors conclude that “it may be that university investments in religious instruction and education are too little too late for some students.  in her study of the hook-up culture, donna freitas, the author of sex and the soul: juggling sexuality, spirituality, romance, and religion on america’s college campuses, found that the one type of college that stood out from the trend toward “hooking up” was the evangelical christian college.  “hooking up and forming romantic relationships on today’s college campuses,” in m. summarized the report’s findings: “the college culture of alcohol and other drug abuse is linked to poor student academic performance, depression, anxiety, risky sex, rape, suicide and accidental death, property damage, vandalism, fights and a host of medical problems.

Rewriting the College Hook-Up Script | CampusClarity

  while we cannot claim that the hook-up culture contributes to a change in church attendance and support for abortion and gay marriage, we can propose the likelihood that once a catholic campus adopts a culture that is counter to church teachings on sexual morality, support for all church teachings declines. found that for a minority of students virginity was important and writes that when she was interviewing female students on one catholic campus, students were about to enter into a lottery for on-campus apartments and residence hall rooms for the following year.  nearly all of the researchers who are studying the hook-up campus culture have found that alcohol is implicated as a correlate—if not necessarily as a causal factor—in the hook-up culture. college student explores the hook up culture on college campuses, and finds out that it's not as common as you think.  the student told freitas about what he identified as “the dirty girls” on his campus, who are perceived by others (and himself) as having hooked up too much. bogle’s study points to the negative impact of this lifestyle for female students. peggy drexler, assistant professor of psychology in psychiatry at weill cornell medical college, tells teen vogue, “what remains most unchanged, among all this talk of liberation and freedom from gender stereotypes, is that the classic double standard is still very much alive in hook-up culture. “hook-up” culture on catholic campuses: a review of the literature. elgortmy lifethe surprising reality about hook-up culture in collegethe statistics behind sex on campus will shock you.  many catholic campuses have far greater numbers of female students than males, and some researchers suggest that women are competing for men on these campuses. of the extent of the hook-up culture on campus can be divided into categories by the methods used in collecting data. like bogle, freitas found that students hooked up at catholic colleges as on any other campus, with only evangelical schools standing out. the origins, the reality is that hooking up has become the dominant script for forming sexual and romantic relationships on catholic and secular campuses.

The hookup culture on campus kathleen bogle

Study Casts Skeptical Light on Campus 'Hookup Culture

”  many catholic students seem to arrive on catholic college campuses with little idea about what the church teaches about sexual morality. virginity was not the norm on many of the campuses she studied, freitas did not find that there was a stigma associated with virginity: “the woman telling me the story is not a virgin herself, but she is quick to argue that virginity is a perfectly legitimate choice for some people.. mcnellis said his motivation to address the male response to the hook-up culture stemmed from his observations of student life: “the thing that struck me as a difference from when i was in college was how little women now expect of men” (morrison, 2010).  freitas and bogle both introduce the concept of the “walk of shame,” which refers to a female college student walking home the next morning after a hook-up encounter, wearing the same outfit she was wearing the evening prior.  sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies and abortions—as well as a long list of psychological costs including poor self-esteem, depression and sadness—have been correlated with the emergence of the hook-up culture on campus. campuses characterized by students as mostly catholic: seventy-five percent of students identify as catholic; two classes are required in theology; mass is celebrated most days of the week; most residence halls are co-ed; and some limits are placed on co-ed visitation. poor socialization for catholic teenagers is often continued when they arrive on catholic campuses and may be confronted with theology professors who are committed to providing a critical perspective of the catholic faith rather than instruction on what the faith teaches. but when bogle surveyed students about how often they thought their fellow students were hooking up, they typically said seven times a semester. and foremost, the number of catholic students on campus matters. while this rate is higher than that on very catholic campuses, it is lower than that on mostly catholic campuses, where 55 percent of students hook up.  the commission issued two reports—the smoke-free campus (1993) and rethinking rites of passage (1994)—and was chaired by reverend edward malloy, c. england agrees, saying, “there definitely is an active hook-up culture, but it’s only because people have the idea that people are doing it every week.  there is a growing body of data that points to a degraded student culture on many college campuses—including catholic college campuses (bogle, 2008; freitas, 2008; burdette, ellison, hill and glenn, 2009).

The Myths of Hookup Culture - Guernica

  most of the female respondents to this survey were disappointed with their campus culture.”  another student on a catholic campus told freitas, “i have a friend in the hall who has been with her boyfriend for three years and she wants to wait for marriage, and i think that is an amazing decision.  “hookups: characteristics and correlates of college students spontaneous and anonymous sexual experiences,” journal of sex research (2000), 37: 76-88.  students need an alternative to the culture of sexual permissiveness that currently shapes students’ expectations.”  freitas found that at the evangelical colleges, there was not a hook-up culture that pressured students. understand this culture it is helpful to review some of the interviews freitas conducted with catholic college students. damage: more than 25 percent of administrators from schools with low drinking levels and more than 50 percent from schools with high drinking levels say their campuses have a “moderate” or “major” problem with alcohol-related property damage.’ book reveals that there is a culture of “openness” about the sexual behavior of other students: “one young woman told me that at her catholic school, by the end of the second month in her first-year residence hall, students had developed a kind of catalog about who was experienced at what and who was not experienced at all… several young women told me that once they lost their virginity, they felt as though they might as well continue. in hooking up: sex, dating and relationships on campus (2008), kathleen bogle found catholic colleges and universities to be no different from other schools.  but the reality remains that similar gender disparities exist on evangelical christian campuses where females outnumber males by significant percentages. are individual costs and institutional costs that accrue when a hook-up culture emerges on a catholic campus.  all students are affected because such a culture can permeate the entire campus.  additionally, the number of alcohol-related injuries and deaths at the campus is an important statistic to find out.

Getting Messed Up to Hook Up: The Role of Alcohol in College

the hook-up is nothing new — bucknell sociologist william flack has been studying it since 2001 and casual sex has been happening on campus for decades — but the dominance of explaining your encounter with a romantic venture as “hooking up" has become widely accepted as something that everyone in college does, but it’s not really as campus-wide as most people think. dating in college today, however, is very different, and it all begins with the culture of hooking up and casual encounters.  from the moment they step on campus for freshman orientation, college students are steeped in the radicalism-turned-orthodoxy that is the hook-up culture. far back as 1999, a majority of college presidents identified alcohol abuse as one of the most serious problems facing students on campus.  these interviews reveal a culture of “theme parties” that have become a “campus tradition” on many campuses—including some catholic campuses.  casa advocates a ban on alcohol in dorms, in most common areas, at on-campus parties, and at sporting events. the third portion of this report, we consider the role of alcohol in encouraging and expanding the hook-up culture.  this uncertainty about catholic teachings on sexual morality may actually encourage a hook-up culture by creating a non-judgmental culture that conveys tacit approval for sexual behaviors counter to church teachings.  providing what sociologists call “opportunity situations” used to play an important role in the student life on most college campuses, because at one time the adults leading these schools recognized how important it is that young people meet each other, fall in love, and form families. a growing number of secular campuses, there is movement toward offering students the opportunity to share co-ed bedrooms—perhaps an indication of things to come on certain catholic campuses, where student life policies often follow secular trends in american higher education.(more: looking for love: college students may prefer relationship sex to casual hookups). students on evangelical or conservative protestant campuses, students on catholic campuses do not constitute what the authors identify as a “moral community. recommends a set of policies to colleges and universities in an effort both to prevent and reduce alcohol abuse on campus.

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