## Radiometric Dating | The Institute for Creation Research

when an organism dies, it ceases to take in new carbon-14, and the existing isotope decays with a characteristic half-life (5730 years). the possible confounding effects of contamination of parent and daughter isotopes have to be considered, as do the effects of any loss or gain of such isotopes since the sample was created. the age that can be calculated by radiometric dating is thus the time at which the rock or mineral cooled to closure temperature. certain decay rates apparently aren’t as stable as some would hope.[13][17] however, construction of an isochron does not require information on the original compositions, using merely the present ratios of the parent and daughter isotopes to a standard isotope.[3] among the best-known techniques are radiocarbon dating, potassium–argon dating and uranium–lead dating. stimulating these mineral grains using either light (optically stimulated luminescence or infrared stimulated luminescence dating) or heat (thermoluminescence dating) causes a luminescence signal to be emitted as the stored unstable electron energy is released, the intensity of which varies depending on the amount of radiation absorbed during burial and specific properties of the mineral. closure temperatures are so high that they are not a concern. scientists have concluded that it is not; it is instead a consequence of the fact that radiometric dating actually works and works quite well. instead, they are a consequence of background radiation on certain minerals. tests, nuclear reactors and the use of nuclear weapons have also changed the composition of radioisotopes in the air over the last few decades. few verified examples of incorrect radiometric ages are simply insufficient to prove that radiometric dating is invalid. dating methods are not radiometric dating methods in that they do not rely on abundances of isotopes to calculate age. if the earth were only 6000–10 000 years old, then surely there should be some scientific evidence to confirm that hypothesis; yet the creationists have produced not a shred of it so far. these long time periods are computed by measuring the ratio of daughter to parent substance in a rock, and inferring an age based on this ratio. at a certain temperature, the crystal structure has formed sufficiently to prevent diffusion of isotopes. rate of creation of carbon-14 appears to be roughly constant, as cross-checks of carbon-14 dating with other dating methods show it gives consistent results. the proportion of carbon-14 left when the remains of the organism are examined provides an indication of the time elapsed since its death. of these other isotopes include:Potassium-40 found in your body at all times; half-life = 1. is age of the sample,D is number of atoms of the daughter isotope in the sample,D0 is number of atoms of the daughter isotope in the original composition,N is number of atoms of the parent isotope in the sample at time t (the present), given by n(t) = noe-λt, and. and yet the results are the same within analytical error. the supposed age of “index fossils” is based on how long these 19th century evolutionists believed one kind of animal would take (somehow) to “evolve” into a different kind of animal.[16] dating can now be performed on samples as small as a nanogram using a mass spectrometer. levels of carbon-14 become difficult to measure and compare after about 50,000 years (between 8 and 9 half lives; where 1% of the original carbon-14 would remain undecayed). of a meteorite called shallowater are usually included in the irradiation to monitor the conversion efficiency from 127i to 128xe.## Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating - CSI

in practice, geologists carefully select what rocks they will date, and have many explanations for discordant dates, so it's not clear how such a study could be done, but it might be a good project for creationists. the age of the carbon in the rock is different from that of the carbon in the air and makes carbon dating data for those organisms inaccurate under the assumptions normally used for carbon dating. austin (1996) has documented excess 40ar in the 1986 dacite flow from mount st helens, but the amounts are insufficient to produce significant errors in all but the youngest rocks. additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes, with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. amounts of otherwise rare 36cl (half-life ~300ky) were produced by irradiation of seawater during atmospheric detonations of nuclear weapons between 1952 and 1958.[5][6][7] the only exceptions are nuclides that decay by the process of electron capture, such as beryllium-7, strontium-85, and zirconium-89, whose decay rate may be affected by local electron density. this is extremely powerful verification of the validity of both the theory and practice of radiometric dating. radiometric dating methods use this basic principle to extrapolate the age of artifacts being tested. the fallout from this enormous impact, including shocked quartz and high concentrations of the element iridium, has been found in sedimentary rocks at more than 100 locations worldwide at the precise stratigraphic location of the cretaceous-tertiary (k-t) boundary (alvarez and asaro 1990; alvarez 1998). dating methods based on extinct radionuclides can also be calibrated with the u-pb method to give absolute ages. of these methods are accurate only back to the last global catastrophe (i. the second thing is that some of the results have been repeated using the same technique, which is another check against analytical errors. "approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage model". as the mineral cools, the crystal structure begins to form and diffusion of isotopes is less easy. the third is that all three meteorites were dated by more than one method — two methods each for allende and guarena, and four methods for st severin. creationist approach of focusing on examples where radiometric dating yields incorrect results is a curious one for two reasons. addition to shocked quartz grains and high concentrations of iridium, the k-t impact produced tektites, which are small glass spherules that form from rock that is instantaneously melted by a large impact. thus, as an event marker of 1950s water in soil and ground water, 36cl is also useful for dating waters less than 50 years before the present. and fractionation issues are frankly acknowledged by the geologic community. others are from larger asteroids that got hot enough to melt and send lava flows to the surface. most radioactive nuclides, the half-life depends solely on nuclear properties and is essentially a constant. the mass spectrometer was invented in the 1940s and began to be used in radiometric dating in the 1950s. are 3 important things to know about the ages in table 1. the procedures used to isolate and analyze the parent and daughter nuclides must be precise and accurate. mathematical premise undergirding the use of these elements in radiometric dating contains the similar confounding factors that we find in carbon-14 dating method.- Do batman and wonder woman date in justice league unlimited
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### The fatal flaw with radioactive dating methods – BiblicalGeology blog

dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50,000 years old. no — it is the result of extremely careful analyses using a technique that works. all bases must be covered if we are going to accurately time the race. attempt to check the accuracy of carbon dating by comparing carbon dating data to data from other dating methods. with scores of other bible-believing geologists, icr scientists have made key observations that compel us to reject the millions-of-years apparent ages that these techniques yield:First, rocks of known age always show vastly inflated radioisotope “ages. dating has been carried out since 1905 when it was invented by ernest rutherford as a method by which one might determine the age of the earth. radioactive potassium-40 is common in micas, feldspars, and hornblendes, though the closure temperature is fairly low in these materials, about 350 °c (mica) to 500 °c (hornblende). the half-life of carbon-14 makes it unreliable for dating fossils over about 50,000 years old, there are other isotopes scientists use to date older artifacts. what dating method did scientists use, and did it really generate reliable results? tektites are easily recognizable and form in no other way, so the discovery of a sedimentary bed (the beloc formation) in haiti that contained tektites and that, from fossil evidence, coincided with the k-t boundary provided an obvious candidate for dating. dating cannot be used on most fossils, not only because they are almost always allegedly too old, but also because they rarely contain the original carbon of the organism that has been fossilized. if this occurs, initial volcanic eruptions would have a preponderance of daughter products relative to the parent isotopes. each parent nuclide spontaneously decays into a daughter nuclide (the decay product) via an α decay or a β− decay. there are a few categories of artifacts that can be dated using carbon-14; however, they cannot be more 50,000 years old. the problems inherent in radiometric dating often cause them to be so unreliable that they contradict one another rather than validating each other. various confounding factors that can adversely affect the accuracy of carbon-14 dating methods are evident in many of the other radioisotope dating methods. the final decay product, lead-208 (208pb), is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. dating of rocks and minerals using naturally occurring, long-lived radioactive isotopes is troublesome for young-earth creationists because the techniques have provided overwhelming evidence of the antiquity of the earth and life. in the following article, some of the most common misunderstandings regarding radiocarbon dating are addressed, and corrective, up-to-date scientific creationist thought is provided where appropriate. 40ar/39ar dating into the historical realm: calibration against pliny the younger. a scenario does not answer all of the questions or solve all of the problems that radiometric dating poses for those who believe the genesis account of creation and the flood. for this reason, icr research has long focused on the science behind these dating techniques. such failures may be due to laboratory errors (mistakes happen), unrecognized geologic factors (nature sometimes fools us), or misapplication of the techniques (no one is perfect). dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. radiometric dating requires a measurable fraction of parent nucleus to remain in the sample rock.#### Clocks in the Rocks

for example, if they believed it would take 200 million years for an ammonite (somehow) to turn gradually into say a dog, then all rocks containing fossil ammonites (the “index fossil”) would be given an “age” 200 million years older than rocks containing fossils of dogs:“… the geological column and approximate ages of all the fossil-bearing strata were all worked out long before anyone ever heard or thought about radioactive dating … there are so many sources of possible error or misinterpretation in radiometric dating that most such dates are discarded and never used at all, notably whenever they disagree with the previously agreed-on [index fossil] dates.. the global flood of 2,348 bc) as global catastrophes reset all the radiometric/atomic “clocks” by invalidating the evolutionist’s main dating assumption that there have never been any global catastrophes. to be able to distinguish the relative ages of rocks from such old material, and to get a better time resolution than that available from long-lived isotopes, short-lived isotopes that are no longer present in the rock can be used. this age is computed under the assumption that the parent substance (say, uranium) gradually decays to the daughter substance (say, lead), so the higher the ratio of lead to uranium, the older the rock must be. the k-t tektites were ejected into the atmosphere and deposited some distance away. decay rates not stablefor about a century, radioactive decay rates have been heralded as steady and stable processes that can be reliably used to help measure how old rocks are. a particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide.[12][13] dating of different minerals and/or isotope systems (with differing closure temperatures) within the same rock can therefore enable the tracking of the thermal history of the rock in question with time, and thus the history of metamorphic events may become known in detail. there is also evidence that many anomalies are never reported. other creationists have focused on instances in which radiometric dating seems to yield incorrect results. this temperature is what is known as closure temperature and represents the temperature below which the mineral is a closed system to isotopes., many dating methods that don't involve radioisotopes—such as helium diffusion, erosion, magnetic field decay, and original tissue fossils—conflict with radioisotope ages by showing much younger apparent ages. basic equation of radiometric dating requires that neither the parent nuclide nor the daughter product can enter or leave the material after its formation. precision of a dating method depends in part on the half-life of the radioactive isotope involved. 36cl has seen use in other areas of the geological sciences, including dating ice and sediments. although the half-life of some of them are more consistent with the evolutionary worldview of millions to billions of years, the assumptions used in radiometric dating put the results of all radiometric dating methods in doubt. creationists seem to think that a few examples of incorrect radiometric ages invalidate all of the results of radiometric dating, but such a conclusion is illogical. second, the radiometric age measurements, 187 of them, were made on 3 different minerals and on glass by 3 distinctly different dating methods (k-ar and 40ar/39ar are technical variations that use the same parent-daughter decay scheme), each involving different elements with different half-lives. radiometric dating generally requires that the parent has a long enough half-life that it will be present in significant amounts at the time of measurement (except as described below under "dating with short-lived extinct radionuclides"), the half-life of the parent is accurately known, and enough of the daughter product is produced to be accurately measured and distinguished from the initial amount of the daughter present in the material. this makes carbon-14 an ideal dating method to date the age of bones or the remains of an organism. where are the data and age calculations that result in a consistent set of ages for all rocks on earth, as well as those from the moon and the meteorites, no greater than 10 000 years? how could all of this be so if the 40ar/39ar dating technique did not work? for example, after extensive testing over many years, it was concluded that uranium-helium dating is highly unreliable because the small helium atom diffuses easily out of minerals over geologic time. the fission tracks produced by this process are recorded in the plastic film. the heat of the impact melted some of the feldspar crystals in the granitic rocks of the impact zone, thereby resetting their internal radiometric clocks.